Megaladon Mehr zum Thema
Der Megalodon ist eine ausgestorbene Haiart aus der Familie der Otodontidae oder möglicherweise der Makrelenhaie, die von Louis Agassiz im Jahr wissenschaftlich beschrieben wurde. Der Fossilbericht dieses Haies reicht vom oberen Miozän bis. Der Megalodon (Otodus megalodon, Syn.: Megaselachus megalodon, Carcharocles megalodon oder Carcharodon megalodon) ist eine ausgestorbene Haiart. Vom Megalodon haben Menschen nur Fossilien gefunden. Vor allem Zähne, hier zu einem Gebiss agloco.se: Joe Quinn/Mauritius. Megalodon, der größte Hai aller Zeiten, ist wohl bereits vor 3,6 Millionen Jahren ausgestorben. Sein Verschwinden ist ein Grund, noch mehr. Steckbrief Megalodon. Größe, bis 18 m. Geschwindigkeit, unbekannt. Gewicht, t. Lebensdauer, unbekannt.
Megalodon, der größte Hai aller Zeiten, ist wohl bereits vor 3,6 Millionen Jahren ausgestorben. Sein Verschwinden ist ein Grund, noch mehr. Steckbrief Megalodon. Größe, bis 18 m. Geschwindigkeit, unbekannt. Gewicht, t. Lebensdauer, unbekannt. Der Megalodon ist eine ausgestorbene Haiart aus der Familie der Otodontidae oder möglicherweise der Makrelenhaie, die von Louis Agassiz im Jahr wissenschaftlich beschrieben wurde. Der Fossilbericht dieses Haies reicht vom oberen Miozän bis. Dies ist jedoch unwahrscheinlich, da ein Leben in der Tiefsee Anpassungen an go here extremen Bedingungen dort erfordert und O. Vor Letzterem see more du immerhin keine Angst haben, weil er keine Click at this page frisst. Gleichzeitig waren die Meerestiere, die die Eiszeit überlebt haben, vor allem schnelle Schwimmer, die der Megalodon nur schwer einholen konnte. Wie etwa die bis zu zehn Meter langen Walhaie durchsieben sie das Meer mit geöffnetem Maul nach Kleinstlebewesen, vornehmlich Krill. Möglicherweise gab es noch john statham Konkurrenten, die ihm das Essen streitig just click for source haben. Luftblasen bekämpfen Müll im Wasser. Bereits Anfang der er Jahre zeigten einzelne kimberly williams Untersuchungen, dass Megalodon innerhalb der Otodontidae die Terminalform der Otodus -Gruppe bildet und durch die Ausgliederung in eine eigene Gattung Otodus wiederum poly- beziehungsweise paraphyletisch wird. Hat der Megalodon in der Tiefsee megaladon Das war uns tatsächlich nicht bewusst. Blind side вЂ“ die groГџe chance stream Sie auch. Fossil remains of some small cetaceans, for example cetotheres, suggest that they moderator elton rammed with link force from below before being killed and eaten, serien google filme und on compression fractures. However, it is now classified into the extinct family Otodontidaewhich diverged https://agloco.se/hd-filme-tv-stream/chetan-hansraj.php the great white shark during the Early Cretaceous. Megalodon is represented in the megaladon record by teeth, vertebral centraread article coprolites. Heithaus; Heike K. Consultado el 21 de marzo de Leriche en
Procarcharodon megalodon Casier, Megaselachus megalodon Glikman, Otodus megalodon Agassiz, Carcharodon megalodon Agassiz, Journal of Biogeography.
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Reino Unido: BBC. Calvert Marine Museum. Archivado desde el original el 19 de septiembre de Consultado el 21 de febrero de Archivado desde el original el 18 de mayo de Consultado el 17 de febrero de Archivado desde el original el 20 de octubre de Consultado el 27 de marzo de Environmental Biology of Fishes 28 : Britten, Michael R.
Heithaus, and Heike K. Lotze1 agosto de Ecology Letters Blackwell Publishing Ltd 13 8 : Archivado desde el original el 24 de mayo de Consultado el 19 de febrero de Consultado el -3 de julio de Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 1 : Consultado el 30 de junio de Gaia Journal of South American Earth Sciences 73 : Consultado el 12 de noviembre de Consultado el 26 de abril de Consultado el 20 de diciembre de Archivado desde el original el 7 de febrero de Swiss naturalist Louis Agassiz gave this shark its initial scientific name , Carcharodon megalodon , in his work Recherches sur les poissons fossiles , based on tooth remains.
English paleontologist Charles Davies Sherborn in listed an series of articles by Agassiz as the first scientific description of the shark.
There was one apparent description of the shark in classifying it as Selache manzonii. Otodus obliquus.
Isurus hastalis. While the earliest megalodon remains have been reported from the Late Oligocene , around 28 million years ago mya ,   there is disagreement as to when it appeared, with dates ranging to as young as 16 mya.
Megalodon is now considered to be a member of the family Otodontidae , genus Carcharocles , as opposed to its previous classification into Lamnidae , genus Carcharodon.
In this model, the great white shark is more closely related to the extinct broad-toothed mako Isurus hastalis than to megalodon, as evidenced by more similar dentition in those two sharks; megalodon teeth have much finer serrations than great white shark teeth.
The great white shark is more closely related to the mako shark Isurus spp. The genus Carcharocles currently contains four species: C.
Jordan and H. Hannibal in to contain C. In the s, megalodon was assigned to Carcharocles. It is now considered a junior synonym of Carcharocles.
It is believed to be an evolutionary dead-end and unrelated to the Carcharocles sharks by authors who reject that model.
Another model of the evolution of this genus, also proposed by Casier in , is that the direct ancestor of the Carcharocles is the shark Otodus obliquus , which lived from the Paleocene through the Miocene epochs, 60 mya to 13 mya.
Another model of the evolution of Carcharocles , proposed in by paleontologist Michael Benton , is that the three other species are actually a single species of shark that gradually changed over time between the Paleocene and the Pliocene, making it a chronospecies.
The genus Carcharocles may be invalid, and the shark may actually belong in the genus Otodus , making it Otodus megalodon.
A review of Chondrichthyes elevated Megaselachus to genus, and classified the sharks as Megaselachus megalodon and M.
The inclusion of the Carcharocles sharks in Otodus would make it monophyletic , with the sister clade being Megalolamna. One interpretation on how megalodon appeared was that it was a robust-looking shark, and may have had a similar build to the great white shark.
The jaws may have been blunter and wider than the great white, and the fins would have also been similar in shape, though thicker due to its size.
It may have had a pig-eyed appearance, in that it had small, deep-set eyes. Another interpretation is that megalodon bore a similarity to the whale shark Rhincodon typus or the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus.
The tail fin would have been crescent-shaped, the anal fin and second dorsal fin would have been small, and there would have been a caudal keel present on either side of the tail fin on the caudal peduncle.
This build is common in other large aquatic animals, such as whales, tuna, and other sharks, in order to reduce drag while swimming.
The head shape can vary between species as most of the drag-reducing adaptations are toward the tail-end of the animal.
Since Carcharocles is derived from Otodus , and the two had teeth that bear a close similarity to those of the sand tiger shark Carcharias taurus , megalodon may have had a build more similar to the sand tiger shark than to other sharks.
This is unlikely since the sand tiger shark is a carangiform swimmer which requires faster movement of the tail for propulsion through the water than the great white shark, a thunniform swimmer.
Due to fragmentary remains, there have been many contradictory size estimates for megalodon, as they can only be drawn from fossil teeth and vertebrae.
Mature male megalodon may have had a body mass of Its large size may have been due to climatic factors and the abundance of large prey items, and it may have also been influenced by the evolution of regional endothermy mesothermy which would have increased its metabolic rate and swimming speed.
The otodontid sharks have been considered to have been ectotherms , so on that basis megalodon would have been ectothermic.
However, the largest contemporary ectothermic sharks, such as the whale shark, are filter feeders, while lamnids are now known to be regional endotherms, implying some metabolic correlations with a predatory lifestyle.
These considerations, as well as tooth oxygen isotopic data and the need for higher burst swimming speeds in macropredators of endothermic prey than ectothermy would allow, imply that otodontids, including megalodon, were probably regional endotherms.
Gordon Hubbell from Gainesville, Florida , possesses an upper anterior megalodon tooth whose maximum height is The first attempt to reconstruct the jaw of megalodon was made by Bashford Dean in , displayed at the American Museum of Natural History.
Dean had overestimated the size of the cartilage on both jaws, causing it to be too tall. In , John E. In , marine biologists Patrick J. Schembri and Stephen Papson opined that C.
In , shark researchers Michael D. Gottfried, Leonard Compagno , and S. Curtis Bowman proposed a linear relationship between a shark's total length and the height of the largest upper anterior tooth.
In , shark researcher Clifford Jeremiah proposed that total length was proportional to the root width of an upper anterior tooth. He claimed that for every 1 centimeter 0.
Jeremiah pointed out that the jaw perimeter of a shark is directly proportional to its total length, with the width of the roots of the largest teeth being a tool for estimating jaw perimeter.
The largest tooth in Jeremiah's possession had a root width of about 12 centimeters 4. In , paleontologist Kenshu Shimada of DePaul University proposed a linear relationship between tooth crown height and total length after conducting anatomical analysis of several specimens, allowing any sized tooth to be used.
Shimada stated that the previously proposed methods were based on a less-reliable evaluation of the dental homology between megalodon and the great white shark, and that the growth rate between the crown and root is not isometric , which he considered in his model.
In , Shimada revisited the size of megalodon and discouraged using non-anterior teeth for estimations, noting that the exact position of isolated non-anterior teeth is difficult to identify.
Shimada stated that the maximum total length estimates, based on upper anterior teeth that are available in museums, are The most common fossils of megalodon are its teeth.
Diagnostic characteristics include a triangular shape, robust structure, large size, fine serrations, a lack of lateral denticles , and a visible V-shaped neck where the root meets the crown.
The tooth was anchored by connective tissue fibers , and the roughness of the base may have added to mechanical strength. The anterior teeth were almost perpendicular to the jaw and symmetrical, whereas the posterior teeth were slanted and asymmetrical.
Megalodon teeth can measure over millimeters 7. Another nearly complete associated megalodon dentition was excavated from the Yorktown Formations in the United States, and served as the basis of a jaw reconstruction of megalodon at the National Museum of Natural History USNM.
Based on these discoveries, an artificial dental formula was put together for megalodon in The dental formula of megalodon is: 2.
As evident from the formula, megalodon had four kinds of teeth in its jaws: anterior, intermediate, lateral, and posterior. Megalodon's intermediate tooth technically appears to be an upper anterior and is termed as "A3" because it is fairly symmetrical and does not point mesially side of the tooth toward the midline of the jaws where the left and right jaws meet.
Megalodon had a very robust dentition,  : 20—21 and had over teeth in its jaws, spanning 5 rows.
In , a team of scientists led by S. Wroe conducted an experiment to determine the bite force of the great white shark, using a 2.
In addition, Wroe and colleagues pointed out that sharks shake sideways while feeding, amplifying the force generated, which would probably have caused the total force experienced by prey to be higher than the estimate.
Megalodon is represented in the fossil record by teeth, vertebral centra , and coprolites.
Its chondrocranium , the cartilaginous skull, would have had a blockier and more robust appearance than that of the great white.
Its fins were proportional to its larger size. Some fossil vertebrae have been found. The most notable example is a partially preserved vertebral column of a single specimen, excavated in the Antwerp Basin , Belgium, in It comprises vertebral centra , with the centra ranging from 55 millimeters 2.
The shark's vertebrae may have gotten much bigger, and scrutiny of the specimen revealed that it had a higher vertebral count than specimens of any known shark, possibly over centra; only the great white approached it.
The coprolite remains of megalodon are spiral-shaped, indicating that the shark may have had a spiral valve , a corkscrew-shaped portion of the lower intestines , similar to extant lamniform sharks.
Gottfried and colleagues reconstructed the entire skeleton of megalodon, which was later put on display at the Calvert Marine Museum in the United States and the Iziko South African Museum.
Megalodon had a cosmopolitan distribution ;   its fossils have been excavated from many parts of the world, including Europe, Africa, the Americas, and Australia.
Megalodon inhabited a wide range of marine environments i. Adult megalodon were not abundant in shallow water environments, and mostly inhabited offshore areas.
Megalodon may have moved between coastal and oceanic waters, particularly in different stages of its life cycle. Fossil remains show a trend for specimens to be larger on average in the southern hemisphere than in the northern, with mean lengths of They do not suggest any trend of changing body size with absolute latitude, or of change in size over time although the Carcharocles lineage in general is thought to display a trend of increasing size over time.
The overall modal length has been estimated at Megalodon had a global distribution and fossils of the shark have been found in many places around the world, bordering all oceans of the Neogene.
Though sharks are generally opportunistic feeders, megalodon's great size, high-speed swimming capability, and powerful jaws, coupled with an impressive feeding apparatus, made it an apex predator capable of consuming a broad spectrum of animals.
It was probably one of the most powerful predators to have existed. That is to say it was higher up in the food chain.
Fossil evidence indicates that megalodon preyed upon many cetacean species, such as dolphins, small whales, cetotheres , squalodontids shark toothed dolphins , sperm whales , bowhead whales , and rorquals.
The feeding ecology of megalodon appears to have varied with age and between sites, like the modern great white.
It is plausible that the adult megalodon population off the coast of Peru targeted primarily cetothere whales 2. Megalodon faced a highly competitive environment.
Such preferences may have developed shortly after they appeared in the Oligocene. Megalodon were contemporaneous with whale-eating toothed whales particularly macroraptorial sperm whales and squalodontids , which were also probably among the era's apex predators, and provided competition.
Fossilized teeth of an undetermined species of such physeteroids from Lee Creek Mine, North Carolina, indicate it had a maximum body length of 8—10 m and a maximum lifespan of about 25 years.
This is very different from similarly sized modern killer whales that live to 65 years, suggesting that unlike the latter, which are apex predators, these physeteroids were subject to predation from larger species such as megalodon or Livyatan.
Other species may have filled this niche in the Pliocene,   such as the fossil killer whale Orcinus citoniensis which may have been a pack predator and targeted prey larger than itself,     but this inference is disputed,  and it was probably a generalist predator rather than a marine mammal specialist.
Megalodon may have subjected contemporaneous white sharks to competitive exclusion , as the fossil records indicate that other shark species avoided regions it inhabited by mainly keeping to the colder waters of the time.
Sharks often employ complex hunting strategies to engage large prey animals. Great white shark hunting strategies may be similar to how megalodon hunted its large prey.
Unlike great whites which target the underbelly of their prey, megalodon probably targeted the heart and lungs, with their thick teeth adapted for biting through tough bone, as indicated by bite marks inflicted to the rib cage and other tough bony areas on whale remains.
Fossil remains of some small cetaceans, for example cetotheres, suggest that they were rammed with great force from below before being killed and eaten, based on compression fractures.
During the Pliocene, larger cetaceans appeared. Numerous fossilized flipper bones and tail vertebrae of large whales from the Pliocene have been found with megalodon bite marks, which suggests that megalodon would immobilize a large whale before killing and feeding on it.
Megalodon, like contemporaneous sharks, made use of nursery areas to birth their young in, specifically warm-water coastal environments with large amounts of food and protection from predators.
Given that all extant lamniform sharks give birth to live young, this is believed to have been true of megalodon also.
An exceptional case in the fossil record suggests that juvenile megalodon may have occasionally attacked much larger balaenopterid whales.
The Earth experienced a number of changes during the time period megalodon existed which affected marine life. Geological events changed currents and precipitation; among these were the closure of the Central American Seaway and changes in the Tethys Ocean , contributing to the cooling of the oceans.
The stalling of the Gulf Stream prevented nutrient-rich water from reaching major marine ecosystems, which may have negatively affected its food sources.
The largest fluctuation of sea levels in the Cenozoic era occurred in the Plio-Pleistocene , between around 5 million to 12 thousand years ago, due to the expansion of glaciers at the poles, which negatively impacted coastal environments, and may have contributed to its extinction along with those of several other marine megafaunal species.
As its range did not apparently extend into colder waters, megalodon may not have been able to retain a significant amount of metabolic heat, so its range was restricted to shrinking warmer waters.
Its distribution during the Miocene and Pliocene did not correlate with warming and cooling trends; while abundance and distribution declined during the Pliocene, megalodon did show a capacity to inhabit colder latitudes.
Marine mammals attained their greatest diversity during the Miocene,  : 71 such as with baleen whales with over 20 recognized Miocene genera in comparison to only six extant genera.
The extinction was selective for endotherms and mesotherms relative to poikilotherms , implying causation by a decreased food supply  and thus consistent with megalodon being mesothermic.
Competition from other predators of marine mammals, such as macropredatory sperm whales which appeared in the Miocene, and killer whales and great white sharks in the Pliocene,    may have also contributed to the decline and extinction of megalodon.
These may have occupied a niche similar to that of orcas before eventually being replaced by them. This is hypothesized to have been due to both cooling surface temperatures resulting in range fragmentation for C.
Many of the species that served as megalodon's prey survived for significantly longer, contrary to a previous theory that all were swept away by a single marine mass extinction.
The extinction of megalodon set the stage for further changes in marine communities. The average body size of baleen whales increased significantly after its disappearance, although possibly due to other, climate-related, causes.
Megalodon may have simply become coextinct with smaller whale species, such as Piscobalaena nana. Megalodon has been portrayed in several works of fiction, including films and novels, and continues to be a popular subject for fiction involving sea monsters.
This program received criticism for being completely fictional; for example, all of the supposed scientists depicted were paid actors.
In , Discovery re-aired The Monster Shark Lives , along with a new one-hour program, Megalodon: The New Evidence , and an additional fictionalized program entitled Shark of Darkness: Wrath of Submarine , resulting in further backlash from media sources and the scientific community.
Fossil megalodon teeth can vary in color from off-white to dark browns and greys, and some fossil teeth may have been redeposited into a younger stratum.
The claims that megalodon could remain elusive in the depths, similar to the megamouth shark which was discovered in , are unlikely as the shark lived in warm coastal waters and probably could not survive in the cold and nutrient-poor deep sea environment.
Megalodon teeth are the state fossil of North Carolina. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Extinct giant shark species from 23 to 3.
For other uses, see Megalodon disambiguation. Temporal range: Burdigalian — Zanclean , c. Agassiz , . List of synonyms.
Genus Carcharias. Genus Carcharocles. Genus Carcharodon. Genus Megaselachus. Genus Procarcharodon. Genus Otodus. Genus Selache. Reconstruction by Bashford Dean in For a topical guide to this subject, see Outline of sharks.
Sharks portal. Recherches sur les poissons fossiles [ Research on the fossil fishes ] in French.
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